personality disorder (notes)

assalamualaikum w.b.t...


type of personality diorder :

-schizoid
-borderline
-histrionic
-narcissistic
-avoidant
-antisocial


MODEL OF ABNORMALITY :

medical model - disebabkan brain injuries,chemical defieciency,hormonal imbalance..

psychodynamic model - bermula dari kecik lagi

behavioral model - disebabkan oleh ineffective learning n boleh diubah

cognitive model - human being in both pro social n maladjusted coz of their thoughts

sociocultural model - disebabkan pengaruh sekeliling

ANXIETY DISORDER :

-rasa bimbang yang melampau
-bila rasa bimbang xdapat dikawal or rasa bimbang tanpa sebab,boleh dikira sebagai personality disorder

PANIC DISORDER :

-panic attacks menyebabkan rasa bimbang or resah yang terlampau
-selalunya akan bereluh,palpilation,sakit dada rasa macam nak gila

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER :

-rasa bimbang or takut but xtau punca
-selalunya berlanjutan untuk satu tempoh masa yang lama-6 bulan

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER :

-rasa takut pasal sesuatu benda yang menyebabkan someone tunjuk sikap pelik
-takut pada kuman - akan basuh tangan dengan sabun cepat2 n kerap

POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) :

-trauma pasal kejadian mengejut macam kemalangan ngeri or kematian orang tersayang
-orang yang alami akan tunjuk sikap trauma bila teringat balik kisah tu

SOCIAL ANXIETY PHOBIA :

-takut untuk berada di khalayak ramai
-rasa macam diperhatikan bila berada depan orang ramai


COMMON PHOBIAS :

acrophobia - gayat

agoraphobia - takut untuk berada di tempat terbuka / crowded

claustrophobia - takut tempat gelap/tertutup

brontophobia - takut guruh ( common in children ) --> astraphobia, tonitrophobia, keraunophobia

mysophobia - takut kuman (basuh tangan banyak kali) --> germophobia/bacterophobia @ germaphobia/bacillophobia

necrophobia - takut sume yang berkaitan ngan kematian

aerophobia - takut sukan lasak or berkait ngan udara like wind surfing

arachnophobia - takut spiders

ophidiophobia - takut ular

murophobia - takut tikus

cynophobia - takut anjing


CAUSES OF ANXIETY DISORDER :

-gene - involved in production of neurotransmitter serotonin

-certain deficiency - produce some kind of anxiety disorder

-its a respond of stress

-environment of a person

-feeling guilty towards something


SOMATOFORM DISORDER :

-physical symptoms dat r not under voluntary control n no apparent causes exist
-hysteria or Briquet's syndromes

hypochondriasis - fear of being sick, anxiety about disease

conversion disorder - inability to use sense organ such as cannot move hands , inability to speak


DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER :

-disturbance in conciousness,memory,identity,perception

multiple personality 
- displaying characteristics of two or more distinct personality
-each personality have its own like or dislikes
-selalu terjadi dalam kalangan wanita n disebabkan oleh physical abuse in childhood

dissociative amnesia
-selalu dipanggil psychogenic amnesia
-xboleh ingat apa yang terjadi
-hilang ingatan

dissociative fugue
-take impulsive,sudden trip,often assuming new identity
-lepas beberapa ketika baru sedar yang dorg berada di tempat lain n lupa pasal masa yang dah dihabiskan


MOOD STATES :

-hepi
-relax
-sedih

OBSERVABLE EXPRESSION OF MOODS :


  • blunted - stalking poverty of emotional response (citer pasal citer sdey then orang nangis)
  • flat - lacking any emotional expression or reactivity (bincang kes bunuh without show trace)
  • inappropiate - emotional expression disharmonious in quality o d person,event or idea dat provoked it (a woman senyum lebar untuk tunjuk perasaan die)
  • labile - emotional liability (pathological laughter n crying) - eg : citer about life,nangis2 then gelak2
  • restricted - far narrower range of emotional expression than would be expected - muted emotional reactivity (a woman citer pasal pengalaman sedey tp juz nampak sedih,xnangis)

MOOD DISORDER :


bipolar disoder 
-known as manic-depressive disorder
-selalunya berlaku untuk yang umo 20
-high (manic) to overly low (depressed)
-patient's behaviour vacillates between 2 extreems :
  • manic phase - cakap laju,kurang tido
  • depressed phase - moody n sad wif feeling of hopelessness

bipolar 2 disorder

-characterised by one or major depressive episodes acompanied by at least one hypomania episod
-hypomanic - symptoms of mania dat r geerally less severe
-cannot have psychotic features




conditions that commonly occur with bipolar disorder :
  • anxiety dissorder - PTSD,social phobia,generalized anxiety disorder
  • attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - untuk kes ni,bipolar disorder susah untuk dibezakan dari ADHD .. kekadang boleh tertukar..confius with both conditions
  • addiction/substance abuse - alcohol or drug problem
  • physical health problem - ade penyakit such as heart disease,thyroid,obesity


depressive disorder
-major depressive disorder (MDD) - typical depression (increase risk for suicide)
-dysthymia
-general category of mood disorder
-muram

major depression
-loss of interest in all life activities
-have delusions-false belief dat inconsistent with reality

causes of major depressive disorder
-caused by combination of biological,learning,cognitive factors
*learning n cognitive theories
-muram
-need to obtain reinforcement mcm asking neighbours
-sllunya orang yang muram olweiz rasa terlampau rendah diri
-have poor self-concept n negative expectation
*learned helplessness
-bila someone hope n dream olweiz xtercapai,dia akan rasa macam berhenti untuk berharap
-give-up
-rasa down yang teramat n keep salahkan diri sendiri

substance induce mood disorder

alcohol induced mood disorder

benzodiazepine induces mood disorder

interferon-alpha mood disorder

catatonic depression - diam


RISK FACTOR FOR MOOD DISORDER :

Major Depressive Disorder
- family history
-early childhood trauma
-major life stressors
-female - in reproductive phase of life
-age 20-40
-urban lifestyle
-unemployed
-alcohol abuse
-nicotine dependence
-divorced or separated
-previous episode

Bipolar Disorder
-family history
-major life stressor
-history of cyclothymia
-age 15-30
-rapid cycling,mixed states n cyclothymia greater in woman
-substance abuse
lack of sleep
previous episode


TOP 9 DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS
  • depressed mood
  • decrease interest or pleasure
  • weight changes
  • sleep disturbances
  • psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • fatigue
  • feeling of worthlessness or guilt
  • "brain fog"
  • thoughts of death

SUICIDE :

-orang yang selalu muram berisiko tinggi untuk bunuh diri
-they believe dat things cannot n will not get better n suicide is d bez option
*attempters
-try to commit suicide tapi x berjaya
-selalunya terjadi pada wanita
*completers
-berjaya bunuh diri
-selalunya golongan lelakii n tua - guna cara ngeri macam tembak kat kepala

causes of suicide :

biological psychologist - certain neurotransmitter especially serotonin linked to disorders dat predispose individuals to suicide

behavioral psychologist - past experience yang mempengaruhi someone untuk bunuh diri

cognitive psychologist - failure of solving problems such as stress

humanistic psychologist - waste of  human's being potential

PREVENTION :

*sebenarnya orang yang nak bunuh diri xnak bunuh diri, tapi sebab stress,dorang xleh nak halang perasaan dorang
-nak bantu orang yang nak bunuh diri,cuba elakkan kondisi yang menyebabkan someone bunuh diri
-kalau someone kata nak bunuh diri,jangan ambik remeh
-kata-kata and ayat die kena alert !


with luv,

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