memory (notes)

assalamualaikum w.b.t...

notes pasal memory



memory allows us to retrieve vast amount of information to which we have been exposed (apa yg dah kita alami)

PROCESSES :

encoding
-macam komputer
-record memory then simpan
*consolidation-physiological changes in brain to get info to storage

storage
-simpan memori
-maintanence untuk material yang disimpan

retrieval
-proses ingat balik apa yang disimpan bila perlu


MEMORY STORAGE SYSTEM :

sensory memory
-simpan benda yang baru jadi

iconic memory
-benda yang dilihat then disimpan

echoic memory
-benda yang didengar n disimpan

short-term memory
-disimpan jika bermakna
*rate rehearsal/maintenance rehearsal - senang ingat number..ulang2 sebut guna inner voice (num phone)
*chunk - groupkan something untuk mudah ingat (eg : '012' '981')
*mnemonics - singkatan untuk sesuatu perkataan

3 parts of working memory :
  • central executive
  • visuo-spatial sketchpad
  • phonological loop


long-term memory
-information yang disimpan relatively permanent basis,though difficult to retrieve
-ability to retrieve


memory modules :
  • declarative memory - somantic memory (knowledge) n episodic memory (ingat person yang penting)
  • nondeclarative memory - procedural memory (ingat cara main basikal,main bola,...)
  • explicit memory - information pasal name,date (outside)
  • implicit memory - memori yang kita xperasaan ada,but tersimpan lam otak (inside)


-memory storage system-

retrieval cues
-ingat balik pasal something yang dah lama berlaku
-ingat bila orang bagi hint
-kenangan or ingatan pasal something akan datang bila ada retrieval cues
-guna tenaga untuk ingat something
-macam main puzzle,means xjumpa lagi 1piece of puzzle,xley recall
-recognition (bila orang tanya "saya pernah buat macam ni eh,kat mane")
*series of process consisting recall
~ search through memory
~ retrieval potentially relevant info
~ decision whether its accurate or not


flashbulb memory
-ingatan pasal something like kejadian yang teruk (eg:tsunami)







CONSTRACTIVE PROCESS IN MEMORY :
-wujud bila kita terlibat dalam satu2 kejadian
-macam kita bagi jasa

schemas - general theme dat contain lil specific detail (unimportant detail are omitted)

serial reproduction - gossip (information is passed sequently from one to another)

repressed memory - kenangan yang orang tu ingat,but xnak citer kat orang lain

false memory -cuba ingat pasal something yang xpernah wujud dalam ingatan

autobiographical memory - episod hidup,ape yang someone penah lalui..kenangan tu bagi effect kat dia hari ni..means,xley lupa


FORGETTING :

-studied by Hermann Ebbinghaus
-occured systematically
-lepas 9 jam,the rate of forgetting slows n declines little,even after the passage of many years (mudah lupa)

*mechanism :
  • decay - loss of information due to its nonuse (belajar pasal something,but xpraktikkan..lama2 lupa)
  • interference - information in memory displace or blocked by another information


PROACTIVE & RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE :

proactive interference./inhibition - decrease in accurate recall information disebabkan oleh apa yang penah kita belajar
retroactive interference/inhibition - decrease in ccurate recall information disebabkan oleh apa yang baru belajar..


MEMORY DISFUNCTION :

alzheimer disease




amnesia

-memory loss dat occur without mental difficulties
*retrograde amnesia - memory loss lepas injury
*anterograde amnesia - sikap pelupa




IMPROVING MEMORY :

keyword technique - buat kata kunci

method of loci - 'loci' means place..example,bila bagi ucapan,teringat pasal tempat yang boleh buat kita recall

encoding specificity phenomenon - information lagi senang nak ingat kalau environment sama

organization of text material - teringat pasal something yang pernah dibaca

organization of lecture notes - daripada salin semua apa yang lecturer tulis,better paham then buat keyword

practice n rehearsal - tengok balik apa yang lepas then practice d material untuk recall


BRAIN TWISTER :

tedency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning i called :

-encoding failure
-repression
-retroactive interference

memories outside concious awareness are called :

-proactive memories
-reactive memories
-explicit memories
-implicit memories

part of brain dat function :

a-hippocampus
b-cerebral cortex
c-RS
d-engram switching center

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

tu je untuk memory..^_^


with luv,

No comments: