genetic 2

assalamualaikum w.b.t...


oke..ai ni baru nak hapdate belog pasal notes..
*pemalas betol..-.-
bukan apa,
dua tiga hari ni siyes mood nak study xde..
start dari hari jumaat malam tu,
sampai semalam..
then hari ni baru ade selera nak jenguk notes..
kalo x juz belek2 sikit2 je..
sungguh xkelihatan macam student yang nak ambik final exam hari kamis ni..
*oh no! sila jangan mention hari keramat tu ! >_<

semalam sampai petang tadi baca notes untuk pengajian malaysia..
though xberapa nak memenuhi ciri2 ingatan yang sepatutnya,
tapi oke la..
ingat la jugak sikit2..
alhamdulillah..

then lepas solat maghrib + baca yasin tadi ingat nak terus hadap notes..
tapi it seems imposibble je..
anggota2 tubuh xmo cooperate langsung ! -.-''

so tangguh dulu n around pukul 9.00 p.m hafal apa2 yang patot..
jam 10.45 p.m baru stat belek incik genetics..>_<''
sikap yang xpatot dicontohi oleh junior2..>_<

oke..lets begin..makin banyak lak yanie bebel..>_<"
sori2..

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

genes ade dua jenis :

constitutive - "housekeeping genes" --> simple structure (constant)
controllable - expressed only when needed --> complex structure (only in certain condition)

gene regulation in prokaryotes :
-a set of gene which is regulated or controlled by ONE PROMOTER

structure :
-cistrons (code for specific protein)
-promoter region
-operator region
-regulatory region

function :
-catabolic (lac operon)
-anabolic (ara operon)


LAC OPERON



how it works ?

--> in the absence of lactose,the repressor protein binds to d operator region..RNA polymerase (RNAP) cannot bind to d promoter region..there's no transcription occur..genes are not expressed..

-->in the presence of lactose,d lactose will bind to d repressor protein n change in shape..so dat d repressor protein cannot bind to the operator region coz of d change of shape..the RNAP can bind to d promoter region,transcription occur n mRNA produced ! ^_^


gene regulation in eukaryotes :
-transcription - level of regulation
-mencegah penggumpalan mRNA
-no translation when not needed

regulatory pathways :
-hormones
-DNA structures (histones n chromatin packaging)
-enhancers
-DNA-binding protein
-transcription factors
key : has David end D-boring talk ?




*the more the protein bounds to the DNA,the less the transcription (sebab lagi ketat)


GENE MUTATION

mutations :
- changes in nucleotide sequence in DNA
- MAY occur in SOMATIC CELL --> not passed to d offsprings
- MAY occur in GAMETES --> MAYbe passed to d offsprings
- jarang berlaku
- repaired by enzymes

chromosomal mutation :
- mungkin melibatkan perubahan struktur kromosom
- deletion a part of chromosome

jenis :
-deletion
-inversion
-translocation
-nondisjunction
-duplication

DELETION :  
                                          
-due to d breakage
-a piece of chromosome hilang




INVERSION :

-chromosome segment break off
-segment jadi upside-down then reattaches



DUPLICATION :

-berlaku bila gene sequence is repeated



TRANSLOCATION :

-melibatkan dua heterozygous chromosomes
-part of one chromosome is transfered to another chromosome




NONDISJUNCTION :

-kegagalan chromosomes untuk separate semasa mitosis
-menyebabkan gamete mempunyai lebih atau kurang chromosomes
disorder :
--> down syndromes (three 21st chromosomes)
--> turner's syndromes (single X chromosomes)
--> klinefelter's syndromes (XXY chromosomes)


CHROMOSOME MUTATION


--> virus that can affect DNA..the virus will inject the DNA and affect the code..for example,the original code is ABCDEFGHI but the affect code will be ABEGHICDF 


GENE MUTATION

-change in the nucleotide osequence of gene
-may only involve single nucleotide
-mungkin disebabkan copying error,virus kimia n etc
types :
-point mutation
-substitution
-insertion
-deletions
-frameshift


POINT MUTATION
-sicle cell disease - result of one nucleotide substitution
-berlaku kat haemoglobin gene


-example of point mutation-


FRAMESHIFT MUTATION

-inserting or deleting one or more nucleotides
-change the 'reading frame' like changing a sentence
-proteins built incorrectly

example : kalau code yang normal,mesti ada tiga,tiga kod kan..but kalau yang frameshift mutation,salah satu kod hilang..





RECOMBINANT DNA

-placing a relevant gene on an organism's DNA
-organism required a specific trait carried by exogenous DNA
-example : recombinant human insulin





with luv,

gene 3

assalamualaikum w.b.t...


oke..ai ni baru nak hapdate belog pasal notes..
*pemalas betol..-.-
bukan apa,
dua tiga hari ni siyes mood nak study xde..
start dari hari jumaat malam tu,
sampai semalam..
then hari ni baru ade selera nak jenguk notes..
kalo x juz belek2 sikit2 je..
sungguh xkelihatan macam student yang nak ambik final exam hari kamis ni..
*oh no! sila jangan mention hari keramat tu ! >_<

semalam sampai petang tadi baca notes untuk pengajian malaysia..
though xberapa nak memenuhi ciri2 ingatan yang sepatutnya,
tapi oke la..
ingat la jugak sikit2..
alhamdulillah..

then lepas solat maghrib + baca yasin tadi ingat nak terus hadap notes..
tapi it seems imposibble je..
anggota2 tubuh xmo cooperate langsung ! -.-''

so tangguh dulu n around pukul 9.00 p.m hafal apa2 yang patot..
jam 10.45 p.m baru stat belek incik genetics..>_<''
sikap yang xpatot dicontohi oleh junior2..>_<

oke..lets begin..makin banyak lak yanie bebel..>_<"
sori2..

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

genes ade dua jenis :

constitutive - "housekeeping genes" --> simple structure (constant)
controllable - expressed only when needed --> complex structure (only in certain condition)

gene regulation in prokaryotes :
-a set of gene which is regulated or controlled by ONE PROMOTER

structure :
-cistrons (code for specific protein)
-promoter region
-operator region
-regulatory region

function :
-catabolic (lac operon)
-anabolic (ara operon)


LAC OPERON



how it works ?

--> in the absence of lactose,the repressor protein binds to d operator region..RNA polymerase (RNAP) cannot bind to d promoter region..there's no transcription occur..genes are not expressed..

-->in the presence of lactose,d lactose will bind to d repressor protein n change in shape..so dat d repressor protein cannot bind to the operator region coz of d change of shape..the RNAP can bind to d promoter region,transcription occur n mRNA produced ! ^_^


gene regulation in eukaryotes :
-transcription - level of regulation
-mencegah penggumpalan mRNA
-no translation when not needed

regulatory pathways :
-hormones
-DNA structures (histones n chromatin packaging)
-enhancers
-DNA-binding protein
-transcription factors
key : has David end D-boring talk ?




*the more the protein bounds to the DNA,the less the transcription (sebab lagi ketat)


GENE MUTATION

mutations :
- changes in nucleotide sequence in DNA
- MAY occur in SOMATIC CELL --> not passed to d offsprings
- MAY occur in GAMETES --> MAYbe passed to d offsprings
- jarang berlaku
- repaired by enzymes

chromosomal mutation :
- mungkin melibatkan perubahan struktur kromosom
- deletion a part of chromosome

jenis :
-deletion
-inversion
-translocation
-nondisjunction
-duplication

DELETION :  
                                          
-due to d breakage
-a piece of chromosome hilang




INVERSION :

-chromosome segment break off
-segment jadi upside-down then reattaches



DUPLICATION :

-berlaku bila gene sequence is repeated



TRANSLOCATION :

-melibatkan dua heterozygous chromosomes
-part of one chromosome is transfered to another chromosome




NONDISJUNCTION :

-kegagalan chromosomes untuk separate semasa mitosis
-menyebabkan gamete mempunyai lebih atau kurang chromosomes
disorder :
--> down syndromes (three 21st chromosomes)
--> turner's syndromes (single X chromosomes)
--> klinefelter's syndromes (XXY chromosomes)


CHROMOSOME MUTATION


--> virus that can affect DNA..the virus will inject the DNA and affect the code..for example,the original code is ABCDEFGHI but the affect code will be ABEGHICDF 


GENE MUTATION

-change in the nucleotide osequence of gene
-may only involve single nucleotide
-mungkin disebabkan copying error,virus kimia n etc
types :
-point mutation
-substitution
-insertion
-deletions
-frameshift


POINT MUTATION
-sicle cell disease - result of one nucleotide substitution
-berlaku kat haemoglobin gene


-example of point mutation-


FRAMESHIFT MUTATION

-inserting or deleting one or more nucleotides
-change the 'reading frame' like changing a sentence
-proteins built incorrectly

example : kalau code yang normal,mesti ada tiga,tiga kod kan..but kalau yang frameshift mutation,salah satu kod hilang..





RECOMBINANT DNA

-placing a relevant gene on an organism's DNA
-organism required a specific trait carried by exogenous DNA
-example : recombinant human insulin





with luv,

dna replication

assalamualaikum w.b.t...


juz a simple note for my exam ..







dkt initiation,helicase break d hydrogen bond..then,akn ad 2strands yg t'hasil -leading,lagging..kt leading,utk bt proses elongation,juz need DNA polymerase,RNA primer wujud kejap je..sbb die continuous reaction..proses elongation kat leading akn continue without more RNA primer..but utk lagging,p'lukan dua2 utk continue elongation tu..bila smpai mse RNA primer abis,akn ad RNA primer len dtg..smpai hbs proses elongation tu n hasilkan okazaki fragment..sbb die non-continuous reaction..okazaki fragment dicantumkn oleh DNA ligase..after sume2 tu,akn ad 2 strands t'hasil iaitu leading ngan lagging..proses replication akn stop bila dua2 da smpai kt ujung strand (kwsn nme telomere)

---> in the DNA replication process,there's three steps involve, initiation,elongation,termination..in initiation,the enzyme helicase will break the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs..the unwinding process happen in the segments that rich in adenin and thymine (A & T). then,the replication fork formed. in the elongation,there will involved two strands which is leading (5' - 3') and lagging (3' - 5'). in the leading strands,the its only need the DNA polymerase to complete the elongation process because it is a continuous reaction. but for the lagging strands, it will need both DNA polymerase and RNA primer to complete the elongation process because it is a non-continuous reaction. after that,the Okazaki Fragment is formed. the DNA ligase is needed to bind the Okazaki Fragment together. when the DNA polymerase reached the end of the strands,the termination occur at the telomere, the non-coding segments..termination is d last process of DNA replication.



with luv,

gene 1

assalamualaikum w.b.t...

gene - segment of DNA dat encode for specific protein

gene expression - process of making protein

alkaptonuria - 'black urine disease'
--->berlaku bila ade disorder dengan pehnylalanin n tyrosine methabolism..lack of homogentesis 1,2 dioxygenase enzyme akan lead kepada penggumpalan homogentisic acid..bila homogentisic acid terdedah,akan sebabkan urine jadi hitam





transcription :

-transcription occur in d cell nucleus..it is d process of making mRNA from DNA based on the DNA templates..mRNA is d copy of DNA codes..in the DNA,we called it as triplets..but when it is copied to the mRNA,it's called codon..the transcription process start at the promoter region in the DNA called TATA box..the TATA box is really important and the transcription process will cannot be done without the TATA box..there is RNA polymerase in the TATA box dat combine with the triplets in the DNA to produce codon..all the codon produced brings different code for amino acid..after that,the mRNA will leave the nucleus to start the process called translation

translation :

translation is the second steps of making protein from mRNA..its occur outside of the cell nucleus..after the mRNA leave the nucleus,the ribosome will attach to the mRNA at the 5' end..this action called initiation..then,the tRNA in the ribosome will find the start codon of the mRNA..when it found the start codon,process of reading the code of mRNA begin..this action called elongation..when it reach at the stop codon,the reading process stop and the translation process automatically stop..this is called termination..after the translation,the protein is produced..



transcription n translation..transcription tu proses utk hasilkan mRNA drpd DNA..ia berlaku dlm nukleus cell..mRNA ad codon yang di'copy' drpd triplets kat DNA (means codon n triplets atceli bnde sma..cma kalo dlm DNA dipanggil triplets,dlm mRNA dipggil codon)..transcription start dkt promoter region dlm DNA (TATA box)..kalo xde TATA box,transcription x occur..codon t'hasil ble RNA polymerase yg ade dlm TATA box b'gabung dgn triplets..stiap code dlm codon bwk amino acid yg b'lainan (abis proses transcription)..lps mRNA t'hasil,mRNA akn kuar drpd nukleus n ribosom akn attach dkt 5' of mRNA (stat proses translation)-initiation..then,tRNA yg ad dlm ribosom akn pegi dkt mRNA n cri start codon utk mula baca code2 dlm mRNA (elongation)..bila dh smpai kat stop codon,proses translation pn stop(termination)..then protein pn t'hasil drpd code2 yg dibaca oleh tRNA td


with luv,

personality disorder (notes)

assalamualaikum w.b.t...


type of personality diorder :

-schizoid
-borderline
-histrionic
-narcissistic
-avoidant
-antisocial


MODEL OF ABNORMALITY :

medical model - disebabkan brain injuries,chemical defieciency,hormonal imbalance..

psychodynamic model - bermula dari kecik lagi

behavioral model - disebabkan oleh ineffective learning n boleh diubah

cognitive model - human being in both pro social n maladjusted coz of their thoughts

sociocultural model - disebabkan pengaruh sekeliling

ANXIETY DISORDER :

-rasa bimbang yang melampau
-bila rasa bimbang xdapat dikawal or rasa bimbang tanpa sebab,boleh dikira sebagai personality disorder

PANIC DISORDER :

-panic attacks menyebabkan rasa bimbang or resah yang terlampau
-selalunya akan bereluh,palpilation,sakit dada rasa macam nak gila

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER :

-rasa bimbang or takut but xtau punca
-selalunya berlanjutan untuk satu tempoh masa yang lama-6 bulan

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER :

-rasa takut pasal sesuatu benda yang menyebabkan someone tunjuk sikap pelik
-takut pada kuman - akan basuh tangan dengan sabun cepat2 n kerap

POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) :

-trauma pasal kejadian mengejut macam kemalangan ngeri or kematian orang tersayang
-orang yang alami akan tunjuk sikap trauma bila teringat balik kisah tu

SOCIAL ANXIETY PHOBIA :

-takut untuk berada di khalayak ramai
-rasa macam diperhatikan bila berada depan orang ramai


COMMON PHOBIAS :

acrophobia - gayat

agoraphobia - takut untuk berada di tempat terbuka / crowded

claustrophobia - takut tempat gelap/tertutup

brontophobia - takut guruh ( common in children ) --> astraphobia, tonitrophobia, keraunophobia

mysophobia - takut kuman (basuh tangan banyak kali) --> germophobia/bacterophobia @ germaphobia/bacillophobia

necrophobia - takut sume yang berkaitan ngan kematian

aerophobia - takut sukan lasak or berkait ngan udara like wind surfing

arachnophobia - takut spiders

ophidiophobia - takut ular

murophobia - takut tikus

cynophobia - takut anjing


CAUSES OF ANXIETY DISORDER :

-gene - involved in production of neurotransmitter serotonin

-certain deficiency - produce some kind of anxiety disorder

-its a respond of stress

-environment of a person

-feeling guilty towards something


SOMATOFORM DISORDER :

-physical symptoms dat r not under voluntary control n no apparent causes exist
-hysteria or Briquet's syndromes

hypochondriasis - fear of being sick, anxiety about disease

conversion disorder - inability to use sense organ such as cannot move hands , inability to speak


DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER :

-disturbance in conciousness,memory,identity,perception

multiple personality 
- displaying characteristics of two or more distinct personality
-each personality have its own like or dislikes
-selalu terjadi dalam kalangan wanita n disebabkan oleh physical abuse in childhood

dissociative amnesia
-selalu dipanggil psychogenic amnesia
-xboleh ingat apa yang terjadi
-hilang ingatan

dissociative fugue
-take impulsive,sudden trip,often assuming new identity
-lepas beberapa ketika baru sedar yang dorg berada di tempat lain n lupa pasal masa yang dah dihabiskan


MOOD STATES :

-hepi
-relax
-sedih

OBSERVABLE EXPRESSION OF MOODS :


  • blunted - stalking poverty of emotional response (citer pasal citer sdey then orang nangis)
  • flat - lacking any emotional expression or reactivity (bincang kes bunuh without show trace)
  • inappropiate - emotional expression disharmonious in quality o d person,event or idea dat provoked it (a woman senyum lebar untuk tunjuk perasaan die)
  • labile - emotional liability (pathological laughter n crying) - eg : citer about life,nangis2 then gelak2
  • restricted - far narrower range of emotional expression than would be expected - muted emotional reactivity (a woman citer pasal pengalaman sedey tp juz nampak sedih,xnangis)

MOOD DISORDER :


bipolar disoder 
-known as manic-depressive disorder
-selalunya berlaku untuk yang umo 20
-high (manic) to overly low (depressed)
-patient's behaviour vacillates between 2 extreems :
  • manic phase - cakap laju,kurang tido
  • depressed phase - moody n sad wif feeling of hopelessness

bipolar 2 disorder

-characterised by one or major depressive episodes acompanied by at least one hypomania episod
-hypomanic - symptoms of mania dat r geerally less severe
-cannot have psychotic features




conditions that commonly occur with bipolar disorder :
  • anxiety dissorder - PTSD,social phobia,generalized anxiety disorder
  • attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - untuk kes ni,bipolar disorder susah untuk dibezakan dari ADHD .. kekadang boleh tertukar..confius with both conditions
  • addiction/substance abuse - alcohol or drug problem
  • physical health problem - ade penyakit such as heart disease,thyroid,obesity


depressive disorder
-major depressive disorder (MDD) - typical depression (increase risk for suicide)
-dysthymia
-general category of mood disorder
-muram

major depression
-loss of interest in all life activities
-have delusions-false belief dat inconsistent with reality

causes of major depressive disorder
-caused by combination of biological,learning,cognitive factors
*learning n cognitive theories
-muram
-need to obtain reinforcement mcm asking neighbours
-sllunya orang yang muram olweiz rasa terlampau rendah diri
-have poor self-concept n negative expectation
*learned helplessness
-bila someone hope n dream olweiz xtercapai,dia akan rasa macam berhenti untuk berharap
-give-up
-rasa down yang teramat n keep salahkan diri sendiri

substance induce mood disorder

alcohol induced mood disorder

benzodiazepine induces mood disorder

interferon-alpha mood disorder

catatonic depression - diam


RISK FACTOR FOR MOOD DISORDER :

Major Depressive Disorder
- family history
-early childhood trauma
-major life stressors
-female - in reproductive phase of life
-age 20-40
-urban lifestyle
-unemployed
-alcohol abuse
-nicotine dependence
-divorced or separated
-previous episode

Bipolar Disorder
-family history
-major life stressor
-history of cyclothymia
-age 15-30
-rapid cycling,mixed states n cyclothymia greater in woman
-substance abuse
lack of sleep
previous episode


TOP 9 DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS
  • depressed mood
  • decrease interest or pleasure
  • weight changes
  • sleep disturbances
  • psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • fatigue
  • feeling of worthlessness or guilt
  • "brain fog"
  • thoughts of death

SUICIDE :

-orang yang selalu muram berisiko tinggi untuk bunuh diri
-they believe dat things cannot n will not get better n suicide is d bez option
*attempters
-try to commit suicide tapi x berjaya
-selalunya terjadi pada wanita
*completers
-berjaya bunuh diri
-selalunya golongan lelakii n tua - guna cara ngeri macam tembak kat kepala

causes of suicide :

biological psychologist - certain neurotransmitter especially serotonin linked to disorders dat predispose individuals to suicide

behavioral psychologist - past experience yang mempengaruhi someone untuk bunuh diri

cognitive psychologist - failure of solving problems such as stress

humanistic psychologist - waste of  human's being potential

PREVENTION :

*sebenarnya orang yang nak bunuh diri xnak bunuh diri, tapi sebab stress,dorang xleh nak halang perasaan dorang
-nak bantu orang yang nak bunuh diri,cuba elakkan kondisi yang menyebabkan someone bunuh diri
-kalau someone kata nak bunuh diri,jangan ambik remeh
-kata-kata and ayat die kena alert !


with luv,

conciousness (notes)

assalamualaikum w.b.t...

kali ni nak share notes conciousness pulak..^_^





mengikut Freud,level of conciousness ade 2..

concious - thought which they're aware
unconcious - thoughts in d form of needs,wishes n desires

conciousness is bila kita berada dalam keadaan sedar n alert dengan surroundings..
altered conciousness - sleep (dreaming) - it can also happen for a person who got a fever

metacognition - people r better able to think about their own thinking (means u're able to know urself..for example, when u aware on what is d risk of not doing ur assignment,so u'll do something to make sure dat u can finish it on time)

properties of conciousness
1-restrict attention (notice n think - combined sensation with learning n memory)
2-select n store memory
3-allow to draw lessons in memory

non-concious process
1-preconcious - ingatan yang xboleh dilupakan (eg : 1st kiss)
2-subconcious - ingatan yang maybe akan lupa (eg : ingatan pasal sume yang penah dilalui)
3-unconcious - ingatan yang susah nak lupa (eg : ingatan2 negatif yang tersimpan dalam memori)

*there is various type of conciousness due to the biological rhythm


EVERYDAY CONCIOUSNESS

daydreaming - attention shifted away from external situation

fantasy - imagine unrealistic,unlike experience (impossible)

circadian rhythm - daily activity

sleep 
- to concerve n restore
- to gain energy
- people who sleep too much will increases d amount of melatonin produced in its body
-sleep more can causes nervous,worrisome,artistic,creative n noncomforming
-sleep less tend to b more energetic n extrovert
-neurotransmitter - build up to compensate d quantity used in daily day
-rapid eye movement (REM) - eye move while sleeping (mata bergerak means someone tu tengah mimpi)


dream
-to guard sleep
-to fulfill wishes

manifest content - mimpi biasa (sikit2)
latent content - mimpi yang bawa maksud
non-REM sleep - mata xbergerak (tido nyenyak)


-non-REM sleep-


-sleep needed for every age-


power nap - tido yang berkualiti


SLEEP DISORDER

insomnia - xley tido malam,tido siang (for people who got insomnia,dont ask them not to sleep when they said dat they wanna sleep coz they're hard to sleep)

sleep apnea - bukan berdengkur..nafas berbunyi..selalunya bila someone letih..ni disebabkan oleh kurang oksigen dalam paru2..related to pulmonary hypertension

narcolepsy - tido tetiba..
*cataplexy - letih tetiba

restless leg syndrom - susah nak tido..gelisah bila nak tido

nocturnal myoclonus - kejang

klein-levin syndrome - hypersomnia & hyperphagia (tido untuk tempoh masa lama abt 1-3 month - macam sleeping beauty)

daytime sleepiness - ngantuk (biasa)

circadian rhythm sleep disorder - tido @ berjaga lama daripada biasa..selalunya terjadi bila berubah negara (berubah waktu)

nightmare disorder - ngigau pasal something menakutkan (ingat mimpi tu)

sleep walking disorder (somnalism) - ngigau (jalan dalam tido) - xingat pasal mimpi tu

bruxism - ketap gigi masa tido

somniloquy (parasomnia) - cakap masa tido..selalunya bila penat

hypnosis - pukau..kekadang guna untuk ubat orang yang susah tido

meditation - yoga

hallucination - berangan/perasan..selalunya kalangan orang gila,penagih (brains reception of sensory input)


PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG

-affect CNS n alter normal functioning of brain
-berubah sikap


type of psychoactive drugs:

key : Saya Dapat Naik Haji
(Stimulants,Depressant,Narcotics,Hallucinogens)

hallucinogens (psychedelics) - affect mood,thought,sense

depressant
-two types - sedatives n tranquilizers
-sebabkan muram,ganggu aktiviti CNS
sedatives-make u sleep
tranquilizers-make u calm

alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
-found in beer,wine,liquor
-second most used after caffein
-slows thinking n impairs physical activities

fetal alcohol syndrome - bila mother drink alcohol while pregnant,it effects d baby

12 ounce beer = 4 ounce wine = 1 ounce whiskey ---> same amount of alcohol

stimulants - increase alertness n attention span,mild environment in mood,agigation,insomnia


type of stimulats :
key : C.A.M.C
(Caffein,Amphetamines,Methaphetamines,Cocaine)

psychological dependence
-repeated or cumpulsive use of drug
-rewarded by effects
-positive reinforcement
-behavior shaped by seeking pleasure
-activating reward circuit in brain

physical dependence :
-bila overdose,xdapat urus diri sendiri


addiction
detoxification-method untuk ubati penagih


with luv,